Obesity is a major problem for the entire world. At least 2.8 million adults die every year because of being overweight or obese. And it shows mostly in adults because of an unhealthy diet and poor lifestyle. Due to, this imbalanced diet & poor lifestyle several diseases can cause like, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, stroke, lower back pain, sleep apnea, and asthma, and certain forms of cancer (colon, endometrium, prostate, and breast) and it may also include stress.
As per the world health organization (WHO), Obesity is defined by body mass index (BMI), which means that combined measurement of weight and height. A BMI between25-29 is considering overweight, and a BMI over 30 is considered obese. According to the World Health Organization data overweight and obesity are the fifth leading risk for global deaths.
There are many ways to regain our fit physique once again after obesity, and the best way is to do exercise and take a healthy diet regularly. But apart from this many people use medication for fat loss and weight loss. and like all things, fat loss medications have also benefit and side effects.
The cause behind the obesity
There is no doubt, an unhealthy diet and less physical activity are the most promising causes of obesity. We changed our food patterns and eating habits very drastically. Now a day we consume more processed food than fresh and organic food. Meanwhile, the calorie intake is high. With a change in food habits, we also reduced the physical activity too.
WEIGHT LOSS TREATMENT OPTIONS
Common treatments for overweight and obesity are consuming a balanced diet, and being more physically active, and making other changes to your usual habits. Intermittent fasting is also a beneficial way for weight loss. Although due to less time and more workload people have no time to do physical activity, yoga for weight loss. So, they are going with medications. Nowadays, there are several types of medication that are available in the market for the treatment of obesity.
FDA-APPROVED MEDICATIONS FOR WEIGHT LOSS
Brand name– Xenical
Orlistat is a non-systemic inhibitor of gastrointestinal (GI) lipases, that are necessary for the breakdown of fat in the GI tract. The recommended dose is 120 mg orally three times daily.
orlistat use to improve insulin sensitivity and lower serum glucose levels.
How it works: This weight loss pill works by inhibiting the breakdown of fat in the gut.
Side effects: Affect the GI tract (abdominal pain, soft-liquid stools). It may contribute to deficiency in fat-soluble vitamins, such as vitamins A, D, E, and K.
Sibutramine affects chemicals in the brain that affect weight maintenance. The recommended dose is 10 mg orally once daily.
How it works: it is a non-amphetamine appetite suppressant that blocks the neuronal uptake of norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine.
- increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure
- increased heart rate
- tachycardia and palpitations
- dry mouth
Brand names: Adipex-P, Ionamin
It is an appetite suppressant. it stimulates the release of noradrenaline and reduces food intake by acting on beta-adrenergic receptors in the perifornical hypothalamus.
How it works: It acts through stimulation of the hypothalamus to decrease appetite.
Side effect: Insomnia and restlessness, Dry mouth, Diarrhea, Tremor
Brand name– Belviq
Lorcaserin is a selective serotonin receptor agonist. and it is a long term treatment drug for obesity in adults,
approved by the FDA in 2012.
How it works: it is a 5-HT2C receptor agonist, activates the proopiomelanocortin system of neurons that induces hypophagia.
side effects: Headache, dizziness, fatigue, nausea, dry mouth, and constipation.
Brand name– Contrave
Contrave is a combination therapy of (bupropion and naltrexone) for obesity in a single tablet. it is a sustained-release (SR) formulations of both naltrexone and bupropion. it may suppress appetite.
how it works: it is a reuptake inhibitor of dopamine and norepinephrine that promotes activation of the central melanocortin pathways.
side effects: nausea/vomiting, headache, dizziness, and insomnia, constipation.
Liraglutide is a GLP-1 receptor agonist. basically, it is used for type 2 diabetes. but, USFDA approved it for obesity in December 2014.
How it works: liraglutide show fast results in specific brain regions that regulate appetite, including the hypothalamus and brainstem.
side effects: nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
NON-FDA APPROVED MEDICATION FOR WEIGHT LOSS
Brand name– Glucophage
Metformin drug is used for type 2 diabetes for a long time. nowadays, it also used for obesity and weight loss.
how it works: it acts by decreasing the production of glucose by the liver and possibly increasing peripheral insulin sensitivity.
side effects– nausea, flatulence(farting), diarrhea, and bloating. a serious side effect of metformin t is lactic acidosis (lactic acid build up in the bloodstream)
NOTE: Never take medication without a doctor’s prescription.