Hypertension: Cause, Symptoms, & Treatment

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Hypertension or high blood pressure is a serious health problem that currently affects nearly 1 billion people worldwide. According to the recent analysis by the World Health Organisation (WHO), this statistic might rise to around 1.57 billion by the year 2025.

Abnormally high blood pressure and a combination of high psychological stress are known as Hypertension. These patients suffering from this disorder will have their blood pressure reading greater than 140 over 90 mmHg.

Hypertension is diagnosed by measuring blood pressure. The Systolic pressure would be the first readings viz. a pressure by which the heart pumps blood through the body, and second readings would be the Diastolic pressure, meaning a pressure at which the heart relaxes and refills the blood. Over the long-term force of the blood against your artery walls is high enough that it may eventually cause health problems, such as heart disease.


  • Systolic pressure: The first, or upper, number. It indicates the pressure in your arteries when your heart beats and pumps out blood.
  • Diastolic pressure: The second, or lower, number. It measures the pressure in your arteries between beats of your hearts.

Blood pressure measurements divide into four general categories:



  • Normal blood pressure: Your blood pressure is normal if it’s below 120/80 mm Hg.
  • Elevated blood pressure: Elevated blood pressure is a systolic pressure ranging from 120 to 129 mm Hg and a diastolic pressure below 80 mm Hg.
  • Stage 1 hypertension: The systolic pressure ranging from 130 to 139 mm Hg or a diastolic pressure ranging from 80 to 89 mm Hg.
  • Stage 2 hypertension: More severe hypertension, a systolic pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher or a diastolic pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher.
  • Hypertension crisis: In this case, the systolic pressure increases to >180 mmHg, and the diastolic pressure becomes more than 120mmHg. In the case of Hypertension crisis immediately contact your doctor


The common symptoms of hypertension include:

  • Dizziness
  • Chest Pain
  • Heart attack
  • Headaches
  • Bleeding Nose
  • Visual Changes
  • Shortness of Breath
  • Flushing or Blushing
  • Narrowing of blood vessels


There are two main types of Hypertension. Each type has a different cause

Primary (Essential) Hypertension

Primary hypertension develops over time with no identifiable cause. It may be due to such things as family history or lifestyle. Most people have this type of high blood pressure. A combination of factors may play a role. These factors include:

  • Genes: Some people are genetically predisposed to hypertension. This may be from gene mutations or genetic abnormalities inherited from your parents.
  • Physical changes: If something in your body changes, you may begin experiencing issues throughout your body. High blood pressure may be one of those issues. For example, it’s thought that changes in your kidney function due to aging may upset the body’s natural balance of salts and fluid. This change may cause your body’s blood pressure to increase.
  • Environment: Over time, unhealthy lifestyle choices like lack of physical activity and poor diet can take their toll on your body. Lifestyle choices can lead to weight problems. Overweight or obese can increase your risk of hypertension.

Secondary Hypertension

It differs from the usual type of high blood pressure (primary hypertension or essential hypertension), which is often referred to simply as high blood pressure. Secondary hypertension can be caused by conditions that affect your kidneys, arteries, heart, or endocrine system. Secondary hypertension can also occur during pregnancy.

  • Diabetes complications (diabetic nephropathy): Diabetes can damage your kidneys’ filtering system, which can lead to high blood pressure.
  • Polycystic kidney disease: In this inherited condition, cysts in your kidneys prevent the kidneys from working normally and can raise blood pressure.
  • Glomerular disease: Your kidneys filter waste and sodium using microscopic-sized filters called glomeruli that can sometimes become swollen. If the swollen glomeruli can’t work normally, you may develop high blood pressure.
  • Renovascular hypertension: This type of hypertension is caused by narrowing (stenosis) of one or both arteries leading to your kidneys.
  • Obesity: As you gain weight, the amount of blood circulating through your body increases. This puts added pressure on your artery walls, increasing your blood pressure.
  • Side effects of Medications and supplements: Various prescription medications such as pain relievers, birth control pills, antidepressants, and drugs used after organ transplants can cause or aggravate high blood pressure in some people.
  • Thyroid problems. When the thyroid gland doesn’t produce enough thyroid hormone (hypothyroidism) or produces too much thyroid hormone (hyperthyroidism), high blood pressure can result.


To measure your blood pressure, your doctor or a specialist will usually place an inflatable arm cuff around your arm and measure your blood pressure using a pressure-measuring gauge.

The process of diagnosis is usually carried out by measuring the patient’s blood pressure using a sphygmomanometer. At least 3 different elevated readings are required to diagnose this condition. This examination along with additional tests helps to identify the causes of high blood pressure and any other complications.

Additional diagnosis might include

  • Kidney ultrasound imaging,
  • Urine tests,
  • Blood tests and cholesterol screening
  • Electrocardiogram (or) ECG test


Lifestyle changes can give you normal blood pressure. Your doctor may recommend you make lifestyle changes including:

  • Eating a heart-healthy diet with less salt
  • Doing regular physical activity( exercise)
  • Maintaining a healthy weight or losing weight if you’re overweight or obese

But sometimes lifestyle changes are not enough. In addition to diet and exercise, your doctor may recommend medication to lower your blood pressure. Your blood pressure treatment goal depends on how healthy you are.

The category of medication depends on your blood pressure measurement and your other medical problems. which is prescribed by your doctor.

Medication to the treatment of high blood pressure

There are few treatments and medications available to cure, control, and reduce the level of blood pressure.

Some of the medicines used to treat hypertension include:


It blocks or reduces epinephrine hormones in your body that can raise your blood pressure. Beta-blocker makes your heart beat slower and with less force. This reduces the amount of blood pumped through your arteries with each beat, which lowers blood pressure. It also blocks epinephrine hormones in your body that can raise your blood pressure.

Examples: Acebutolol, Atenolol, Bisoprolol,  Metoprolol,  Nadolol,  Nebivolol,  Propranolol


High sodium levels and excess fluid in your body can increase blood pressure. Diuretics, also called water pills, help your kidneys to remove excess sodium from your body. As the sodium leaves, extra fluid in your bloodstream moves into your urine.

Examples: Chlorothiazide Hydrochlorothiazide, Indapamide, bumetanide, furosemide, torasemide

Ace inhibitors:

It works by interfering with the body’s renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). ACE inhibitor Stimulate the expansion in the blood vessels by inhibiting the formation of angiotensin-II. Due to this inhibitory effect the excretion of sodium and urine is increased, and the resistance of kidney blood vessels decreases, and the cardiac output and stroke volume is decreases and the venous capacity is increased.

Example: captopril, Lotensin (benazepril), ramipril, moexipril, quinapril, lisinopril, etc.

Calcium channel blockers (CHB):

In some of the cases, doctors prescribe CHB with the combination of other hypertensive medication or with cholesterol-lowering drugs such as statins

CHB is used to blocking the entry of calcium. It decreases the electrical conductance within the heart. Decrease force of contraction of the muscle cells, and dilate arteries. Dilation of arteries helps to reduce the blood pressure.

Example: Amlodipine, Diltiazem, verapamil, nicardipine, nifedipine, felodipine, etc.

Alpha-2 agonist:

This type of medication changes the nerve impulses that cause blood vessels to tighten. This helps blood vessels to relax, which reduces blood pressure.

Example: Clonidine, methyldopa, tizanidine, guanfacine, etc.

Healthy lifestyle to the treatment of high blood pressure

Healthy Lifestyle can help you to control and prevent high blood pressure.

Eat healthy foods

A heart-healthy diet is vital for helping to reduce high blood pressure. A heart-healthy diet emphasizes food that includes:

  • Fruits
  • Vegetables,
  • Whole grains
  • Fish

Increase physical activity

Regular physical activity can help to maintain your blood pressure, manage stress, reduce your risk of several health problems, and keep your weight under control.

Aim for at least 150 minutes a week of moderate aerobic activity or 75 minutes a week of vigorous aerobic activity.

Decrease the salt intake in your diet

Aim to limit sodium to less than 2,300 milligrams (mg) a day or less. However, a lower sodium intake of 1,500 mg a day or less is ideal for most adults.

Maintain a healthy weight

carrying a healthy weight, or losing weight if you’re overweight or obese, can help you control your high blood pressure and lower your risk of related health problems

Limit alcohol

Alcohol can raise your blood pressure. If you choose to drink alcohol, Take it in the limit. For healthy adults, that means up to one drink a day for women, and up to two drinks a day for men.

Don’t smoke:-

Tobacco can injure blood vessel walls and speed up the process of the buildup of plaque in the arteries. If you smoke, ask your doctor to help you quit.

Manage stress

Reduce stress as much as possible. Practice healthy techniques, such as:

  • Muscle relaxation,
  • deep breathing or meditation
  • regular physical activity
  • yoga



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